DOM Recent Discoveries

Subscribe to DOM Recent Discoveries feed NCBI pubmed

URL: https://eutils.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/erss.cgi?rss_guid=1ZSp7ZOQTWbaf7UNhc_yGLkNMqadiJYLoEpLqIZGIwVtkz5EuX

Updated: 13 hours 23 min ago

Items Per Page:             

Salt-responsive gut commensal modulates TH17 axis and disease.

Related Articles

Salt-responsive gut commensal modulates TH17 axis and disease.

Nature. 2017 Nov 15;:

Authors: Wilck N, Matus MG, Kearney SM, Olesen SW, Forslund K, Bartolomaeus H, Haase S, Mähler A, Balogh A, Markó L, Vvedenskaya O, Kleiner FH, Tsvetkov D, Klug L, Costea PI, Sunagawa S, Maier L, Rakova N, Schatz V, Neubert P, Frätzer C, Krannich A, Gollasch M, Grohme DA, Côrte-Real BF, Gerlach RG, Basic M, Typas A, Wu C, Titze JM, Jantsch J, Boschmann M, Dechend R, Kleinewietfeld M, Kempa S, Bork P, Linker RA, Alm EJ, Müller DN

Abstract
A Western lifestyle with high salt consumption can lead to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. High salt may additionally drive autoimmunity by inducing T helper 17 (TH17) cells, which can also contribute to hypertension. Induction of TH17 cells depends on gut microbiota; however, the effect of salt on the gut microbiome is unknown. Here we show that high salt intake affects the gut microbiome in mice, particularly by depleting Lactobacillus murinus. Consequently, treatment of mice with L. murinus prevented salt-induced aggravation of actively induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and salt-sensitive hypertension by modulating TH17 cells. In line with these findings, a moderate high-salt challenge in a pilot study in humans reduced intestinal survival of Lactobacillus spp., increased TH17 cells and increased blood pressure. Our results connect high salt intake to the gut-immune axis and highlight the gut microbiome as a potential therapeutic target to counteract salt-sensitive conditions.

PMID: 29143823 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Selective killing of Helicobacter pylori with pH-responsive helix-coil conformation transitionable antimicrobial polypeptides.

Related Articles

Selective killing of Helicobacter pylori with pH-responsive helix-coil conformation transitionable antimicrobial polypeptides.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Nov 13;:

Authors: Xiong M, Bao Y, Xu X, Wang H, Han Z, Wang Z, Liu Y, Huang S, Song Z, Chen J, Peek RM, Yin L, Chen LF, Cheng J

Abstract
Current clinical treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection, the main etiological factor in the development of gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastric carcinoma, requires a combination of at least two antibiotics and one proton pump inhibitor. However, such triple therapy suffers from progressively decreased therapeutic efficacy due to the drug resistance and undesired killing of the commensal bacteria due to poor selectivity. Here, we report the development of antimicrobial polypeptide-based monotherapy, which can specifically kill H. pylori under acidic pH in the stomach while inducing minimal toxicity to commensal bacteria under physiological pH. Specifically, we designed a class of pH-sensitive, helix-coil conformation transitionable antimicrobial polypeptides (HCT-AMPs) (PGA)m-r-(PHLG-MHH)n, bearing randomly distributed negatively charged glutamic acid and positively charged poly(γ-6-N-(methyldihexylammonium)hexyl-l-glutamate) (PHLG-MHH) residues. The HCT-AMPs showed unappreciable toxicity at physiological pH when they adopted random coiled conformation. Under acidic condition in the stomach, they transformed to the helical structure and exhibited potent antibacterial activity against H. pylori, including clinically isolated drug-resistant strains. After oral gavage, the HCT-AMPs afforded comparable H. pylori killing efficacy to the triple-therapy approach while inducing minimal toxicity against normal tissues and commensal bacteria, in comparison with the remarkable killing of commensal bacteria by 65% and 86% in the ileal contents and feces, respectively, following triple therapy. This strategy renders an effective approach to specifically target and kill H. pylori in the stomach while not harming the commensal bacteria/normal tissues.

PMID: 29133389 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

p120-Catenin is an obligate haploinsufficient tumor suppressor in intestinal neoplasia.

Related Articles

p120-Catenin is an obligate haploinsufficient tumor suppressor in intestinal neoplasia.

J Clin Invest. 2017 Nov 13;:

Authors: Short SP, Kondo J, Smalley-Freed WG, Takeda H, Dohn MR, Powell AE, Carnahan RH, Washington MK, Tripathi M, Payne DM, Jenkins NA, Copeland NG, Coffey RJ, Reynolds AB

Abstract
p120-Catenin (p120) functions as a tumor suppressor in intestinal cancer, but the mechanism is unclear. Here, using conditional p120 knockout in Apc-sensitized mouse models of intestinal cancer, we have identified p120 as an "obligatory" haploinsufficient tumor suppressor. Whereas monoallelic loss of p120 was associated with a significant increase in tumor multiplicity, loss of both alleles was never observed in tumors from these mice. Moreover, forced ablation of the second allele did not further enhance tumorigenesis, but instead induced synthetic lethality in combination with Apc loss of heterozygosity. In tumor-derived organoid cultures, elimination of both p120 alleles resulted in caspase-3-dependent apoptosis that was blocked by inhibition of Rho kinase (ROCK). With ROCK inhibition, however, p120-ablated organoids exhibited a branching phenotype and a substantial increase in cell proliferation. Access to data from Sleeping Beauty mutagenesis screens afforded an opportunity to directly assess the tumorigenic impact of p120 haploinsufficiency relative to other candidate drivers. Remarkably, p120 ranked third among the 919 drivers identified. Cofactors α-catenin and epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) were also among the highest scoring candidates, indicating a mechanism at the level of the intact complex that may play an important role at very early stages of of intestinal tumorigenesis while simultaneously restricting outright loss via synthetic lethality.

PMID: 29130932 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Genetics of human susceptibility to active and latent tuberculosis: present knowledge and future perspectives.

Related Articles

Genetics of human susceptibility to active and latent tuberculosis: present knowledge and future perspectives.

Lancet Infect Dis. 2017 Oct 27;:

Authors: Abel L, Fellay J, Haas DW, Schurr E, Srikrishna G, Urbanowski M, Chaturvedi N, Srinivasan S, Johnson DH, Bishai WR

Abstract
Tuberculosis is an ancient human disease, estimated to have originated and evolved over thousands of years alongside modern human populations. Despite considerable advances in disease control, tuberculosis remains one of the world's deadliest communicable diseases with 10 million incident cases and 1·8 million deaths in 2015 alone based on the annual WHO report, due to inadequate health service resources in less-developed regions of the world, and exacerbated by the HIV/AIDS pandemic and emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Recent findings from studies of tuberculosis infection and of patients with Mendelian predisposition to severe tuberculosis have started to reveal human loci influencing tuberculosis outcomes. In this Review, we assess the current understanding of the contribution of host genetics to disease susceptibility and to drug treatment. Despite remarkable progress in technology, only a few associated genetic variants have so far been identified, strongly indicating the need for larger global studies that investigate both common and under-represented rare variants to develop new approaches to combat the disease. Pharmacogenomic discoveries are also likely to lead to more efficient drug design and development, and ultimately safer and more effective therapies for tuberculosis.

PMID: 29111156 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Loss of mTORC1 signaling alters pancreatic α cell mass and impairs glucagon secretion.

Loss of mTORC1 signaling alters pancreatic α cell mass and impairs glucagon secretion.

J Clin Invest. 2017 Nov 06;:

Authors: Bozadjieva N, Blandino-Rosano M, Chase J, Dai XQ, Cummings K, Gimeno J, Dean D, Powers AC, Gittes GK, Rüegg MA, Hall MN, MacDonald PE, Bernal-Mizrachi E

Abstract
Glucagon plays a major role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis during fed and fasting states. However, the mechanisms responsible for the regulation of pancreatic α cell mass and function are not completely understood. In the current study, we identified mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) as a major regulator of α cell mass and glucagon secretion. Using mice with tissue-specific deletion of the mTORC1 regulator Raptor in α cells (αRaptorKO), we showed that mTORC1 signaling is dispensable for α cell development, but essential for α cell maturation during the transition from a milk-based diet to a chow-based diet after weaning. Moreover, inhibition of mTORC1 signaling in αRaptorKO mice and in WT animals exposed to chronic rapamycin administration decreased glucagon content and glucagon secretion. In αRaptorKO mice, impaired glucagon secretion occurred in response to different secretagogues and was mediated by alterations in KATP channel subunit expression and activity. Additionally, our data identify the mTORC1/FoxA2 axis as a link between mTORC1 and transcriptional regulation of key genes responsible for α cell function. Thus, our results reveal a potential function of mTORC1 in nutrient-dependent regulation of glucagon secretion and identify a role for mTORC1 in controlling α cell-mass maintenance.

PMID: 29106387 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Exome-wide association study of plasma lipids in >300,000 individuals.

Exome-wide association study of plasma lipids in >300,000 individuals.

Nat Genet. 2017 Oct 30;:

Authors: Liu DJ, Peloso GM, Yu H, Butterworth AS, Wang X, Mahajan A, Saleheen D, Emdin C, Alam D, Alves AC, Amouyel P, Di Angelantonio E, Arveiler D, Assimes TL, Auer PL, Baber U, Ballantyne CM, Bang LE, Benn M, Bis JC, Boehnke M, Boerwinkle E, Bork-Jensen J, Bottinger EP, Brandslund I, Brown M, Busonero F, Caulfield MJ, Chambers JC, Chasman DI, Chen YE, Chen YI, Chowdhury R, Christensen C, Chu AY, Connell JM, Cucca F, Cupples LA, Damrauer SM, Davies G, Deary IJ, Dedoussis G, Denny JC, Dominiczak A, Dubé MP, Ebeling T, Eiriksdottir G, Esko T, Farmaki AE, Feitosa MF, Ferrario M, Ferrieres J, Ford I, Fornage M, Franks PW, Frayling TM, Frikke-Schmidt R, Fritsche LG, Frossard P, Fuster V, Ganesh SK, Gao W, Garcia ME, Gieger C, Giulianini F, Goodarzi MO, Grallert H, Grarup N, Groop L, Grove ML, Gudnason V, Hansen T, Harris TB, Hayward C, Hirschhorn JN, Holmen OL, Huffman J, Huo Y, Hveem K, Jabeen S, Jackson AU, Jakobsdottir J, Jarvelin MR, Jensen GB, Jørgensen ME, Jukema JW, Justesen JM, Kamstrup PR, Kanoni S, Karpe F, Kee F, Khera AV, Klarin D, Koistinen HA, Kooner JS, Kooperberg C, Kuulasmaa K, Kuusisto J, Laakso M, Lakka T, Langenberg C, Langsted A, Launer LJ, Lauritzen T, Liewald DCM, Lin LA, Linneberg A, Loos RJF, Lu Y, Lu X, Mägi R, Malarstig A, Manichaikul A, Manning AK, Mäntyselkä P, Marouli E, Masca NGD, Maschio A, Meigs JB, Melander O, Metspalu A, Morris AP, Morrison AC, Mulas A, Müller-Nurasyid M, Munroe PB, Neville MJ, Nielsen JB, Nielsen SF, Nordestgaard BG, Ordovas JM, Mehran R, O'Donnell CJ, Orho-Melander M, Molony CM, Muntendam P, Padmanabhan S, Palmer CNA, Pasko D, Patel AP, Pedersen O, Perola M, Peters A, Pisinger C, Pistis G, Polasek O, Poulter N, Psaty BM, Rader DJ, Rasheed A, Rauramaa R, Reilly DF, Reiner AP, Renström F, Rich SS, Ridker PM, Rioux JD, Robertson NR, Roden DM, Rotter JI, Rudan I, Salomaa V, Samani NJ, Sanna S, Sattar N, Schmidt EM, Scott RA, Sever P, Sevilla RS, Shaffer CM, Sim X, Sivapalaratnam S, Small KS, Smith AV, Smith BH, Somayajula S, Southam L, Spector TD, Speliotes EK, Starr JM, Stirrups KE, Stitziel N, Strauch K, Stringham HM, Surendran P, Tada H, Tall AR, Tang H, Tardif JC, Taylor KD, Trompet S, Tsao PS, Tuomilehto J, Tybjaerg-Hansen A, van Zuydam NR, Varbo A, Varga TV, Virtamo J, Waldenberger M, Wang N, Wareham NJ, Warren HR, Weeke PE, Weinstock J, Wessel J, Wilson JG, Wilson PWF, Xu M, Yaghootkar H, Young R, Zeggini E, Zhang H, Zheng NS, Zhang W, Zhang Y, Zhou W, Zhou Y, Zoledziewska M, Charge Diabetes Working Group, EPIC-InterAct Consortium, EPIC-CVD Consortium, GOLD Consortium, VA Million Veteran Program, Howson JMM, Danesh J, McCarthy MI, Cowan CA, Abecasis G, Deloukas P, Musunuru K, Willer CJ, Kathiresan S

Abstract
We screened variants on an exome-focused genotyping array in >300,000 participants (replication in >280,000 participants) and identified 444 independent variants in 250 loci significantly associated with total cholesterol (TC), high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and/or triglycerides (TG). At two loci (JAK2 and A1CF), experimental analysis in mice showed lipid changes consistent with the human data. We also found that: (i) beta-thalassemia trait carriers displayed lower TC and were protected from coronary artery disease (CAD); (ii) excluding the CETP locus, there was not a predictable relationship between plasma HDL-C and risk for age-related macular degeneration; (iii) only some mechanisms of lowering LDL-C appeared to increase risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D); and (iv) TG-lowering alleles involved in hepatic production of TG-rich lipoproteins (TM6SF2 and PNPLA3) tracked with higher liver fat, higher risk for T2D, and lower risk for CAD, whereas TG-lowering alleles involved in peripheral lipolysis (LPL and ANGPTL4) had no effect on liver fat but decreased risks for both T2D and CAD.

PMID: 29083408 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Exome chip meta-analysis identifies novel loci and East Asian-specific coding variants that contribute to lipid levels and coronary artery disease.

Exome chip meta-analysis identifies novel loci and East Asian-specific coding variants that contribute to lipid levels and coronary artery disease.

Nat Genet. 2017 Oct 30;:

Authors: Lu X, Peloso GM, Liu DJ, Wu Y, Zhang H, Zhou W, Li J, Tang CS, Dorajoo R, Li H, Long J, Guo X, Xu M, Spracklen CN, Chen Y, Liu X, Zhang Y, Khor CC, Liu J, Sun L, Wang L, Gao YT, Hu Y, Yu K, Wang Y, Cheung CYY, Wang F, Huang J, Fan Q, Cai Q, Chen S, Shi J, Yang X, Zhao W, Sheu WH, Cherny SS, He M, Feranil AB, Adair LS, Gordon-Larsen P, Du S, Varma R, Chen YI, Shu XO, Lam KSL, Wong TY, Ganesh SK, Mo Z, Hveem K, Fritsche LG, Nielsen JB, Tse HF, Huo Y, Cheng CY, Chen YE, Zheng W, Tai ES, Gao W, Lin X, Huang W, Abecasis G, GLGC Consortium, Kathiresan S, Mohlke KL, Wu T, Sham PC, Gu D, Willer CJ

Abstract
Most genome-wide association studies have been of European individuals, even though most genetic variation in humans is seen only in non-European samples. To search for novel loci associated with blood lipid levels and clarify the mechanism of action at previously identified lipid loci, we used an exome array to examine protein-coding genetic variants in 47,532 East Asian individuals. We identified 255 variants at 41 loci that reached chip-wide significance, including 3 novel loci and 14 East Asian-specific coding variant associations. After a meta-analysis including >300,000 European samples, we identified an additional nine novel loci. Sixteen genes were identified by protein-altering variants in both East Asians and Europeans, and thus are likely to be functional genes. Our data demonstrate that most of the low-frequency or rare coding variants associated with lipids are population specific, and that examining genomic data across diverse ancestries may facilitate the identification of functional genes at associated loci.

PMID: 29083407 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Dimethylguanidino valeric acid is a marker of liver fat and predicts diabetes.

Dimethylguanidino valeric acid is a marker of liver fat and predicts diabetes.

J Clin Invest. 2017 Oct 30;:

Authors: O'Sullivan JF, Morningstar JE, Yang Q, Zheng B, Gao Y, Jeanfavre S, Scott J, Fernandez C, Zheng H, O'Connor S, Cohen P, Vasan RS, Long MT, Wilson JG, Melander O, Wang TJ, Fox C, Peterson RT, Clish CB, Corey KE, Gerszten RE

Abstract
Unbiased, "nontargeted" metabolite profiling techniques hold considerable promise for biomarker and pathway discovery, in spite of the lack of successful applications to human disease. By integrating nontargeted metabolomics, genetics, and detailed human phenotyping, we identified dimethylguanidino valeric acid (DMGV) as an independent biomarker of CT-defined nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the offspring cohort of the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) participants. We verified the relationship between DMGV and early hepatic pathology. Specifically, plasma DMGV levels were correlated with biopsy-proven nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in a hospital cohort of individuals undergoing gastric bypass surgery, and DMGV levels fell in parallel with improvements in post-procedure cardiometabolic parameters. Further, baseline DMGV levels independently predicted future diabetes up to 12 years before disease onset in 3 distinct human cohorts. Finally, we provide all metabolite peak data consisting of known and unidentified peaks, genetics, and key metabolic parameters as a publicly available resource for investigations in cardiometabolic diseases.

PMID: 29083323 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

PVDOMICS: A Multi-Center Study to Improve Understanding of Pulmonary Vascular Disease Through Phenomics.

Related Articles

PVDOMICS: A Multi-Center Study to Improve Understanding of Pulmonary Vascular Disease Through Phenomics.

Circ Res. 2017 Oct 27;121(10):1136-1139

Authors: Hemnes AR, Beck GJ, Newman JH, Abidov A, Aldred MA, Barnard J, Berman Rosenzweig E, Borlaug BA, Chung WK, Comhair SAA, Erzurum SC, Frantz RP, Gray MP, Grunig G, Hassoun PM, Hill NS, Horn EM, Hu B, Lempel JK, Maron BA, Mathai SC, Olman MA, Rischard FP, Systrom DM, Tang WHW, Waxman AB, Xiao L, Yuan JX, Leopold JA, PVDOMICS Study Group

PMID: 29074534 [PubMed - in process]

Status of Early-Career Academic Cardiology: A Global Perspective.

Related Articles

Status of Early-Career Academic Cardiology: A Global Perspective.

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017 Oct 31;70(18):2290-2303

Authors: Tong CW, Madhur MS, Rzeszut AK, Abdalla M, Abudayyeh I, Alexanderson E, Buber J, Feldman DN, Gopinathannair R, Hira RS, Kates AM, Kessler T, Leung S, Raj SR, Spatz ES, Turner MB, Valente AM, West K, Sivaram CA, Hill JA, Mann DL, Freeman AM

Abstract
Early-career academic cardiologists, who many believe are an important component of the future of cardiovascular care, face myriad challenges. The Early Career Section Academic Working Group of the American College of Cardiology, with senior leadership support, assessed the progress of this cohort from 2013 to 2016 with a global perspective. Data consisted of accessing National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute public information, data from the American Heart Association and international organizations, and a membership-wide survey. Although the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute increased funding of career development grants, only a small number of early-career American College of Cardiology members have benefited as funding of the entire cohort has decreased. Personal motivation, institutional support, and collaborators continued to be positive influential factors. Surprisingly, mentoring ceased to correlate positively with obtaining external grants. The totality of findings suggests that the status of early-career academic cardiologists remains challenging; therefore, the authors recommend a set of attainable solutions.

PMID: 29073958 [PubMed - in process]

Association analysis identifies 65 new breast cancer risk loci.

Association analysis identifies 65 new breast cancer risk loci.

Nature. 2017 Oct 23;:

Authors: Michailidou K, Lindström S, Dennis J, Beesley J, Hui S, Kar S, Lemaçon A, Soucy P, Glubb D, Rostamianfar A, Bolla MK, Wang Q, Tyrer J, Dicks E, Lee A, Wang Z, Allen J, Keeman R, Eilber U, French JD, Qing Chen X, Fachal L, McCue K, McCart Reed AE, Ghoussaini M, Carroll JS, Jiang X, Finucane H, Adams M, Adank MA, Ahsan H, Aittomäki K, Anton-Culver H, Antonenkova NN, Arndt V, Aronson KJ, Arun B, Auer PL, Bacot F, Barrdahl M, Baynes C, Beckmann MW, Behrens S, Benitez J, Bermisheva M, Bernstein L, Blomqvist C, Bogdanova NV, Bojesen SE, Bonanni B, Børresen-Dale AL, Brand JS, Brauch H, Brennan P, Brenner H, Brinton L, Broberg P, Brock IW, Broeks A, Brooks-Wilson A, Brucker SY, Brüning T, Burwinkel B, Butterbach K, Cai Q, Cai H, Caldés T, Canzian F, Carracedo A, Carter BD, Castelao JE, Chan TL, David Cheng TY, Seng Chia K, Choi JY, Christiansen H, Clarke CL, NBCS Collaborators, Collée M, Conroy DM, Cordina-Duverger E, Cornelissen S, Cox DG, Cox A, Cross SS, Cunningham JM, Czene K, Daly MB, Devilee P, Doheny KF, Dörk T, Dos-Santos-Silva I, Dumont M, Durcan L, Dwek M, Eccles DM, Ekici AB, Eliassen AH, Ellberg C, Elvira M, Engel C, Eriksson M, Fasching PA, Figueroa J, Flesch-Janys D, Fletcher O, Flyger H, Fritschi L, Gaborieau V, Gabrielson M, Gago-Dominguez M, Gao YT, Gapstur SM, García-Sáenz JA, Gaudet MM, Georgoulias V, Giles GG, Glendon G, Goldberg MS, Goldgar DE, González-Neira A, Grenaker Alnæs GI, Grip M, Gronwald J, Grundy A, Guénel P, Haeberle L, Hahnen E, Haiman CA, Håkansson N, Hamann U, Hamel N, Hankinson S, Harrington P, Hart SN, Hartikainen JM, Hartman M, Hein A, Heyworth J, Hicks B, Hillemanns P, Ho DN, Hollestelle A, Hooning MJ, Hoover RN, Hopper JL, Hou MF, Hsiung CN, Huang G, Humphreys K, Ishiguro J, Ito H, Iwasaki M, Iwata H, Jakubowska A, Janni W, John EM, Johnson N, Jones K, Jones M, Jukkola-Vuorinen A, Kaaks R, Kabisch M, Kaczmarek K, Kang D, Kasuga Y, Kerin MJ, Khan S, Khusnutdinova E, Kiiski JI, Kim SW, Knight JA, Kosma VM, Kristensen VN, Krüger U, Kwong A, Lambrechts D, Le Marchand L, Lee E, Lee MH, Lee JW, Neng Lee C, Lejbkowicz F, Li J, Lilyquist J, Lindblom A, Lissowska J, Lo WY, Loibl S, Long J, Lophatananon A, Lubinski J, Luccarini C, Lux MP, Ma ESK, MacInnis RJ, Maishman T, Makalic E, Malone KE, Kostovska IM, Mannermaa A, Manoukian S, Manson JE, Margolin S, Mariapun S, Martinez ME, Matsuo K, Mavroudis D, McKay J, McLean C, Meijers-Heijboer H, Meindl A, Menéndez P, Menon U, Meyer J, Miao H, Miller N, Taib NAM, Muir K, Mulligan AM, Mulot C, Neuhausen SL, Nevanlinna H, Neven P, Nielsen SF, Noh DY, Nordestgaard BG, Norman A, Olopade OI, Olson JE, Olsson H, Olswold C, Orr N, Pankratz VS, Park SK, Park-Simon TW, Lloyd R, Perez JIA, Peterlongo P, Peto J, Phillips KA, Pinchev M, Plaseska-Karanfilska D, Prentice R, Presneau N, Prokofyeva D, Pugh E, Pylkäs K, Rack B, Radice P, Rahman N, Rennert G, Rennert HS, Rhenius V, Romero A, Romm J, Ruddy KJ, Rüdiger T, Rudolph A, Ruebner M, Rutgers EJT, Saloustros E, Sandler DP, Sangrajrang S, Sawyer EJ, Schmidt DF, Schmutzler RK, Schneeweiss A, Schoemaker MJ, Schumacher F, Schürmann P, Scott RJ, Scott C, Seal S, Seynaeve C, Shah M, Sharma P, Shen CY, Sheng G, Sherman ME, Shrubsole MJ, Shu XO, Smeets A, Sohn C, Southey MC, Spinelli JJ, Stegmaier C, Stewart-Brown S, Stone J, Stram DO, Surowy H, Swerdlow A, Tamimi R, Taylor JA, Tengström M, Teo SH, Beth Terry M, Tessier DC, Thanasitthichai S, Thöne K, Tollenaar RAEM, Tomlinson I, Tong L, Torres D, Truong T, Tseng CC, Tsugane S, Ulmer HU, Ursin G, Untch M, Vachon C, van Asperen CJ, Van Den Berg D, van den Ouweland AMW, van der Kolk L, van der Luijt RB, Vincent D, Vollenweider J, Waisfisz Q, Wang-Gohrke S, Weinberg CR, Wendt C, Whittemore AS, Wildiers H, Willett W, Winqvist R, Wolk A, Wu AH, Xia L, Yamaji T, Yang XR, Har Yip C, Yoo KY, Yu JC, Zheng W, Zheng Y, Zhu B, Ziogas A, Ziv E, ABCTB Investigators, ConFab/AOCS Investigators, Lakhani SR, Antoniou AC, Droit A, Andrulis IL, Amos CI, Couch FJ, Pharoah PDP, Chang-Claude J, Hall P, Hunter DJ, Milne RL, García-Closas M, Schmidt MK, Chanock SJ, Dunning AM, Edwards SL, Bader GD, Chenevix-Trench G, Simard J, Kraft P, Easton DF

Abstract
Breast cancer risk is influenced by rare coding variants in susceptibility genes, such as BRCA1, and many common, mostly non-coding variants. However, much of the genetic contribution to breast cancer risk remains unknown. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study of breast cancer in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry and 14,068 cases and 13,104 controls of East Asian ancestry. We identified 65 new loci that are associated with overall breast cancer risk at P < 5 × 10(-8). The majority of credible risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms in these loci fall in distal regulatory elements, and by integrating in silico data to predict target genes in breast cells at each locus, we demonstrate a strong overlap between candidate target genes and somatic driver genes in breast tumours. We also find that heritability of breast cancer due to all single-nucleotide polymorphisms in regulatory features was 2-5-fold enriched relative to the genome-wide average, with strong enrichment for particular transcription factor binding sites. These results provide further insight into genetic susceptibility to breast cancer and will improve the use of genetic risk scores for individualized screening and prevention.

PMID: 29059683 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Identification of ten variants associated with risk of estrogen-receptor-negative breast cancer.

Identification of ten variants associated with risk of estrogen-receptor-negative breast cancer.

Nat Genet. 2017 Oct 23;:

Authors: Milne RL, Kuchenbaecker KB, Michailidou K, Beesley J, Kar S, Lindström S, Hui S, Lemaçon A, Soucy P, Dennis J, Jiang X, Rostamianfar A, Finucane H, Bolla MK, McGuffog L, Wang Q, Aalfs CM, ABCTB Investigators, Adams M, Adlard J, Agata S, Ahmed S, Ahsan H, Aittomäki K, Al-Ejeh F, Allen J, Ambrosone CB, Amos CI, Andrulis IL, Anton-Culver H, Antonenkova NN, Arndt V, Arnold N, Aronson KJ, Auber B, Auer PL, Ausems MGEM, Azzollini J, Bacot F, Balmaña J, Barile M, Barjhoux L, Barkardottir RB, Barrdahl M, Barnes D, Barrowdale D, Baynes C, Beckmann MW, Benitez J, Bermisheva M, Bernstein L, Bignon YJ, Blazer KR, Blok MJ, Blomqvist C, Blot W, Bobolis K, Boeckx B, Bogdanova NV, Bojesen A, Bojesen SE, Bonanni B, Børresen-Dale AL, Bozsik A, Bradbury AR, Brand JS, Brauch H, Brenner H, Bressac-de Paillerets B, Brewer C, Brinton L, Broberg P, Brooks-Wilson A, Brunet J, Brüning T, Burwinkel B, Buys SS, Byun J, Cai Q, Caldés T, Caligo MA, Campbell I, Canzian F, Caron O, Carracedo A, Carter BD, Castelao JE, Castera L, Caux-Moncoutier V, Chan SB, Chang-Claude J, Chanock SJ, Chen X, Cheng TD, Chiquette J, Christiansen H, Claes KBM, Clarke CL, Conner T, Conroy DM, Cook J, Cordina-Duverger E, Cornelissen S, Coupier I, Cox A, Cox DG, Cross SS, Cuk K, Cunningham JM, Czene K, Daly MB, Damiola F, Darabi H, Davidson R, De Leeneer K, Devilee P, Dicks E, Diez O, Ding YC, Ditsch N, Doheny KF, Domchek SM, Dorfling CM, Dörk T, Dos-Santos-Silva I, Dubois S, Dugué PA, Dumont M, Dunning AM, Durcan L, Dwek M, Dworniczak B, Eccles D, Eeles R, Ehrencrona H, Eilber U, Ejlertsen B, Ekici AB, Eliassen AH, EMBRACE, Engel C, Eriksson M, Fachal L, Faivre L, Fasching PA, Faust U, Figueroa J, Flesch-Janys D, Fletcher O, Flyger H, Foulkes WD, Friedman E, Fritschi L, Frost D, Gabrielson M, Gaddam P, Gammon MD, Ganz PA, Gapstur SM, Garber J, Garcia-Barberan V, García-Sáenz JA, Gaudet MM, Gauthier-Villars M, Gehrig A, GEMO Study Collaborators, Georgoulias V, Gerdes AM, Giles GG, Glendon G, Godwin AK, Goldberg MS, Goldgar DE, González-Neira A, Goodfellow P, Greene MH, Alnæs GIG, Grip M, Gronwald J, Grundy A, Gschwantler-Kaulich D, Guénel P, Guo Q, Haeberle L, Hahnen E, Haiman CA, Håkansson N, Hallberg E, Hamann U, Hamel N, Hankinson S, Hansen TVO, Harrington P, Hart SN, Hartikainen JM, Healey CS, HEBON, Hein A, Helbig S, Henderson A, Heyworth J, Hicks B, Hillemanns P, Hodgson S, Hogervorst FB, Hollestelle A, Hooning MJ, Hoover B, Hopper JL, Hu C, Huang G, Hulick PJ, Humphreys K, Hunter DJ, Imyanitov EN, Isaacs C, Iwasaki M, Izatt L, Jakubowska A, James P, Janavicius R, Janni W, Jensen UB, John EM, Johnson N, Jones K, Jones M, Jukkola-Vuorinen A, Kaaks R, Kabisch M, Kaczmarek K, Kang D, Kast K, kConFab/AOCS Investigators, Keeman R, Kerin MJ, Kets CM, Keupers M, Khan S, Khusnutdinova E, Kiiski JI, Kim SW, Knight JA, Konstantopoulou I, Kosma VM, Kristensen VN, Kruse TA, Kwong A, Lænkholm AV, Laitman Y, Lalloo F, Lambrechts D, Landsman K, Lasset C, Lazaro C, Le Marchand L, Lecarpentier J, Lee A, Lee E, Lee JW, Lee MH, Lejbkowicz F, Lesueur F, Li J, Lilyquist J, Lincoln A, Lindblom A, Lissowska J, Lo WY, Loibl S, Long J, Loud JT, Lubinski J, Luccarini C, Lush M, MacInnis RJ, Maishman T, Makalic E, Kostovska IM, Malone KE, Manoukian S, Manson JE, Margolin S, Martens JWM, Martinez ME, Matsuo K, Mavroudis D, Mazoyer S, McLean C, Meijers-Heijboer H, Menéndez P, Meyer J, Miao H, Miller A, Miller N, Mitchell G, Montagna M, Muir K, Mulligan AM, Mulot C, Nadesan S, Nathanson KL, NBSC Collaborators, Neuhausen SL, Nevanlinna H, Nevelsteen I, Niederacher D, Nielsen SF, Nordestgaard BG, Norman A, Nussbaum RL, Olah E, Olopade OI, Olson JE, Olswold C, Ong KR, Oosterwijk JC, Orr N, Osorio A, Pankratz VS, Papi L, Park-Simon TW, Paulsson-Karlsson Y, Lloyd R, Pedersen IS, Peissel B, Peixoto A, Perez JIA, Peterlongo P, Peto J, Pfeiler G, Phelan CM, Pinchev M, Plaseska-Karanfilska D, Poppe B, Porteous ME, Prentice R, Presneau N, Prokofieva D, Pugh E, Pujana MA, Pylkäs K, Rack B, Radice P, Rahman N, Rantala J, Rappaport-Fuerhauser C, Rennert G, Rennert HS, Rhenius V, Rhiem K, Richardson A, Rodriguez GC, Romero A, Romm J, Rookus MA, Rudolph A, Ruediger T, Saloustros E, Sanders J, Sandler DP, Sangrajrang S, Sawyer EJ, Schmidt DF, Schoemaker MJ, Schumacher F, Schürmann P, Schwentner L, Scott C, Scott RJ, Seal S, Senter L, Seynaeve C, Shah M, Sharma P, Shen CY, Sheng X, Shimelis H, Shrubsole MJ, Shu XO, Side LE, Singer CF, Sohn C, Southey MC, Spinelli JJ, Spurdle AB, Stegmaier C, Stoppa-Lyonnet D, Sukiennicki G, Surowy H, Sutter C, Swerdlow A, Szabo CI, Tamimi RM, Tan YY, Taylor JA, Tejada MI, Tengström M, Teo SH, Terry MB, Tessier DC, Teulé A, Thöne K, Thull DL, Tibiletti MG, Tihomirova L, Tischkowitz M, Toland AE, Tollenaar RAEM, Tomlinson I, Tong L, Torres D, Tranchant M, Truong T, Tucker K, Tung N, Tyrer J, Ulmer HU, Vachon C, van Asperen CJ, Van Den Berg D, van den Ouweland AMW, van Rensburg EJ, Varesco L, Varon-Mateeva R, Vega A, Viel A, Vijai J, Vincent D, Vollenweider J, Walker L, Wang Z, Wang-Gohrke S, Wappenschmidt B, Weinberg CR, Weitzel JN, Wendt C, Wesseling J, Whittemore AS, Wijnen JT, Willett W, Winqvist R, Wolk A, Wu AH, Xia L, Yang XR, Yannoukakos D, Zaffaroni D, Zheng W, Zhu B, Ziogas A, Ziv E, Zorn KK, Gago-Dominguez M, Mannermaa A, Olsson H, Teixeira MR, Stone J, Offit K, Ottini L, Park SK, Thomassen M, Hall P, Meindl A, Schmutzler RK, Droit A, Bader GD, Pharoah PDP, Couch FJ, Easton DF, Kraft P, Chenevix-Trench G, García-Closas M, Schmidt MK, Antoniou AC, Simard J

Abstract
Most common breast cancer susceptibility variants have been identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of predominantly estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease. We conducted a GWAS using 21,468 ER-negative cases and 100,594 controls combined with 18,908 BRCA1 mutation carriers (9,414 with breast cancer), all of European origin. We identified independent associations at P < 5 × 10(-8) with ten variants at nine new loci. At P < 0.05, we replicated associations with 10 of 11 variants previously reported in ER-negative disease or BRCA1 mutation carrier GWAS and observed consistent associations with ER-negative disease for 105 susceptibility variants identified by other studies. These 125 variants explain approximately 16% of the familial risk of this breast cancer subtype. There was high genetic correlation (0.72) between risk of ER-negative breast cancer and breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers. These findings may lead to improved risk prediction and inform further fine-mapping and functional work to better understand the biological basis of ER-negative breast cancer.

PMID: 29058716 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

A Missense Variant in PLEC Increases Risk of Atrial Fibrillation.

Related Articles

A Missense Variant in PLEC Increases Risk of Atrial Fibrillation.

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017 Oct 24;70(17):2157-2168

Authors: Thorolfsdottir RB, Sveinbjornsson G, Sulem P, Helgadottir A, Gretarsdottir S, Benonisdottir S, Magnusdottir A, Davidsson OB, Rajamani S, Roden DM, Darbar D, Pedersen TR, Sabatine MS, Jonsdottir I, Arnar DO, Thorsteinsdottir U, Gudbjartsson DF, Holm H, Stefansson K

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have yielded variants at >30 loci that associate with atrial fibrillation (AF), including rare coding mutations in the sarcomere genes MYH6 and MYL4.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to search for novel AF associations and in doing so gain insights into the mechanisms whereby variants affect AF risk, using electrocardiogram (ECG) measurements.
METHODS: The authors performed a GWAS of 14,255 AF cases and 374,939 controls, using whole-genome sequence data from the Icelandic population, and tested novel signals in 2,002 non-Icelandic cases and 12,324 controls. They then tested the AF variants for effect on cardiac electrical function by using measurements in 289,297 ECGs from 62,974 individuals.
RESULTS: The authors discovered 2 novel AF variants, the intergenic variant rs72700114, between the genes LINC01142 and METTL11B (risk allele frequency = 8.1%; odds ratio [OR]: 1.26; p = 3.1 × 10(-18)), and the missense variant p.Gly4098Ser in PLEC (frequency = 1.2%; OR: 1.55; p = 8.0 × 10(-10)), encoding plectin, a cytoskeletal cross-linking protein that contributes to integrity of cardiac tissue. The authors also confirmed 29 reported variants. p.Gly4098Ser in PLEC significantly affects various ECG measurements in the absence of AF. Other AF variants have diverse effects on the conduction system, ranging from none to extensive.
CONCLUSIONS: The discovery of a missense variant in PLEC affecting AF combined with recent discoveries of variants in the sarcomere genes MYH6 and MYL4 points to an important role of myocardial structure in the pathogenesis of the disease. The diverse associations between AF variants and ECG measurements suggest fundamentally different categories of mechanisms contributing to the development of AF.

PMID: 29050564 [PubMed - in process]

Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase III Clinical Trial of Anti-T-Lymphocyte Globulin to Assess Impact on Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease-Free Survival in Patients Undergoing HLA-Matched Unrelated Myeloablative Hematopoietic Cell Transplantatio

Related Articles

Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase III Clinical Trial of Anti-T-Lymphocyte Globulin to Assess Impact on Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease-Free Survival in Patients Undergoing HLA-Matched Unrelated Myeloablative Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

J Clin Oncol. 2017 Oct 17;:JCO2017758177

Authors: Soiffer RJ, Kim HT, McGuirk J, Horwitz ME, Johnston L, Patnaik MM, Rybka W, Artz A, Porter DL, Shea TC, Boyer MW, Maziarz RT, Shaughnessy PJ, Gergis U, Safah H, Reshef R, DiPersio JF, Stiff PJ, Vusirikala M, Szer J, Holter J, Levine JD, Martin PJ, Pidala JA, Lewis ID, Ho VT, Alyea EP, Ritz J, Glavin F, Westervelt P, Jagasia MH, Chen YB

Abstract
Purpose Several open-label randomized studies have suggested that in vivo T-cell depletion with anti-T-lymphocyte globulin (ATLG; formerly antithymocyte globulin-Fresenius) reduces chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) without compromising survival. We report a prospective, double-blind phase III trial to investigate the effect of ATLG (Neovii Biotech, Lexington, MA) on cGVHD-free survival. Patients and Methods Two hundred fifty-four patients 18 to 65 years of age with acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome who underwent myeloablative HLA-matched unrelated hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) were randomly assigned one to one to placebo (n =128 placebo) or ATLG (n = 126) treatment at 27 sites. Patients received either ATLG or placebo 20 mg/kg per day on days -3, -2, -1 in addition to tacrolimus and methotrexate as GVHD prophylaxis. The primary study end point was moderate-severe cGVHD-free survival. Results Despite a reduction in grade 2 to 4 acute GVHD (23% v 40%; P = .004) and moderate-severe cGVHD (12% v 33%; P < .001) in ATLG recipients, no difference in moderate-severe cGVHD-free survival between ATLG and placebo was found (2-year estimate: 48% v 44%, respectively; P = .47). Both progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were lower with ATLG (2-year estimate: 47% v 65% [ P = .04] and 59% v 74% [ P = .034], respectively). Multivariable analysis confirmed that ATLG was associated with inferior PFS (hazard ratio, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.05 to 2.28; P = .026) and OS (hazard ratio, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.12 to 2.71; P = .01). Conclusion In this prospective, randomized, double-blind trial of ATLG in unrelated myeloablative HCT, the incorporation of ATLG did not improve moderate-severe cGVHD-free survival. Moderate-severe cGVHD was significantly lower with ATLG, but PFS and OS also were lower. Additional analyses are needed to understand the appropriate role for ATLG in HCT.

PMID: 29040031 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Metabolic Effects of Diet and Exercise in Patients with Moderate to Severe CKD: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Related Articles

Metabolic Effects of Diet and Exercise in Patients with Moderate to Severe CKD: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

J Am Soc Nephrol. 2017 Oct 16;:

Authors: Ikizler TA, Robinson-Cohen C, Ellis C, Headley SAE, Tuttle K, Wood RJ, Evans EE, Milch CM, Moody KA, Germain M, Limkunakul C, Bian A, Stewart TG, Himmelfarb J

Abstract
CKD is steadily increasing along with obesity worldwide. Furthermore, obesity is a proinflammatory risk factor for progression of CKD and cardiovascular disease. We tested the hypothesis that implementation of caloric restriction and aerobic exercise is feasible and can improve the proinflammatory metabolic milieu in patients with moderate to severe CKD through a pilot, randomized, 2×2 factorial design trial. Of 122 participants consented, 111 were randomized to receive caloric restriction and aerobic exercise, caloric restriction alone, aerobic exercise alone, or usual care. Of those randomized, 42% were women, 25% were diabetic, and 91% were hypertensive; 104 started intervention, and 92 completed the 4-month study. Primary outcomes were a change from baseline in absolute fat mass, body weight, plasma F2-isoprostane concentrations, and peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak). Compared with usual care, the combined intervention led to statistically significant decreases in body weight and body fat percentage. Caloric restriction alone also led to significant decreases in these measures, but aerobic exercise alone did not. The combined intervention and each independent intervention also led to significant decreases in F2-isoprostane and IL-6 concentrations. No intervention produced significant changes in VO2 peak, kidney function, or urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio. In conclusion, 4-month dietary calorie restriction and aerobic exercise had significant, albeit clinically modest, benefits on body weight, fat mass, and markers of oxidative stress and inflammatory response in patients with moderate to severe CKD. These results suggest healthy lifestyle interventions as a nonpharmacologic strategy to improve markers of metabolic health in these patients.

PMID: 29038285 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Advances in mechanisms of allergic disease in 2016.

Related Articles

Advances in mechanisms of allergic disease in 2016.

J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017 Oct 13;:

Authors: Rothenberg ME, Saito H, Peebles RS

Abstract
This review highlights advances in mechanisms of allergic disease, particularly type 2 innate lymphoid cells; TH2 lymphocytes; eicosanoid regulation of inflammation; extracellular vesicles in allergic responses; IL-33; microbiome properties, especially as they relate to mucosal barrier function; and a series of findings concerning the allergic inflammatory cells eosinophils, basophils, and mast cells. During the last year, mechanistic advances occurred in understanding type 2 innate lymphoid cells, particularly related to their response to ozone, involvement with experimental food allergy responses, and regulation by IL-33. Novel ways of regulating TH2 cells through epigenetic regulation of GATA-3 through sirtuin-1, a class III histone deacetylase, were published. The understanding of eicosanoid regulation of inflammation increased and focused on additional properties of phospholipase A2 and the role of prostaglandin D2 and its receptors and inhibitory prostaglandin E2 pathways. Mechanisms through which extracellular vesicles are released and contribute to allergic responses were reported. There was a deeper appreciation of mucosal barrier function, the epithelial alarmin IL-33, and the microbiome. Finally, there were advances concerning allergic inflammatory cells (mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils) that will undoubtedly have an effect on disease understanding and new therapeutic strategies.

PMID: 29038009 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

lncRNA MIR100HG-derived miR-100 and miR-125b mediate cetuximab resistance via Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

lncRNA MIR100HG-derived miR-100 and miR-125b mediate cetuximab resistance via Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

Nat Med. 2017 Oct 16;:

Authors: Lu Y, Zhao X, Liu Q, Li C, Graves-Deal R, Cao Z, Singh B, Franklin JL, Wang J, Hu H, Wei T, Yang M, Yeatman TJ, Lee E, Saito-Diaz K, Hinger S, Patton JG, Chung CH, Emmrich S, Klusmann JH, Fan D, Coffey RJ

Abstract
De novo and acquired resistance, which are largely attributed to genetic alterations, are barriers to effective anti-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor (EGFR) therapy. To generate cetuximab-resistant cells, we exposed cetuximab-sensitive colorectal cancer cells to cetuximab in three-dimensional culture. Using whole-exome sequencing and transcriptional profiling, we found that the long non-coding RNA MIR100HG and two embedded microRNAs, miR-100 and miR-125b, were overexpressed in the absence of known genetic events linked to cetuximab resistance. MIR100HG, miR-100 and miR-125b overexpression was also observed in cetuximab-resistant colorectal cancer and head and neck squamous cell cancer cell lines and in tumors from colorectal cancer patients that progressed on cetuximab. miR-100 and miR-125b coordinately repressed five Wnt/β-catenin negative regulators, resulting in increased Wnt signaling, and Wnt inhibition in cetuximab-resistant cells restored cetuximab responsiveness. Our results describe a double-negative feedback loop between MIR100HG and the transcription factor GATA6, whereby GATA6 represses MIR100HG, but this repression is relieved by miR-125b targeting of GATA6. These findings identify a clinically actionable, epigenetic cause of cetuximab resistance.

PMID: 29035371 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Colorectal Cancer Cell Line Proteomes Are Representative of Primary Tumors and Predict Drug Sensitivity.

Related Articles

Colorectal Cancer Cell Line Proteomes Are Representative of Primary Tumors and Predict Drug Sensitivity.

Gastroenterology. 2017 Oct;153(4):1082-1095

Authors: Wang J, Mouradov D, Wang X, Jorissen RN, Chambers MC, Zimmerman LJ, Vasaikar S, Love CG, Li S, Lowes K, Leuchowius KJ, Jousset H, Weinstock J, Yau C, Mariadason J, Shi Z, Ban Y, Chen X, Coffey RJC, Slebos RJC, Burgess AW, Liebler DC, Zhang B, Sieber OM

Abstract
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Proteomics holds promise for individualizing cancer treatment. We analyzed to what extent the proteomic landscape of human colorectal cancer (CRC) is maintained in established CRC cell lines and the utility of proteomics for predicting therapeutic responses.
METHODS: Proteomic and transcriptomic analyses were performed on 44 CRC cell lines, compared against primary CRCs (n=95) and normal tissues (n=60), and integrated with genomic and drug sensitivity data.
RESULTS: Cell lines mirrored the proteomic aberrations of primary tumors, in particular for intrinsic programs. Tumor relationships of protein expression with DNA copy number aberrations and signatures of post-transcriptional regulation were recapitulated in cell lines. The 5 proteomic subtypes previously identified in tumors were represented among cell lines. Nonetheless, systematic differences between cell line and tumor proteomes were apparent, attributable to stroma, extrinsic signaling, and growth conditions. Contribution of tumor stroma obscured signatures of DNA mismatch repair identified in cell lines with a hypermutation phenotype. Global proteomic data showed improved utility for predicting both known drug-target relationships and overall drug sensitivity as compared with genomic or transcriptomic measurements. Inhibition of targetable proteins associated with drug responses further identified corresponding synergistic or antagonistic drug combinations. Our data provide evidence for CRC proteomic subtype-specific drug responses.
CONCLUSIONS: Proteomes of established CRC cell line are representative of primary tumors. Proteomic data tend to exhibit improved prediction of drug sensitivity as compared with genomic and transcriptomic profiles. Our integrative proteogenomic analysis highlights the potential of proteome profiling to inform personalized cancer medicine.

PMID: 28625833 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Carotid Stent Fractures are not Associated with Adverse Events: Results from the ACT 1 Multicenter Randomized Trial.

Carotid Stent Fractures are not Associated with Adverse Events: Results from the ACT 1 Multicenter Randomized Trial.

Circulation. 2017 Oct 05;:

Authors: Weinberg I, Beckman JA, Matsumura JS, Rosenfield K, Ansel G, Chaturvedi S, Gray WA, Metzger DC, Riles TS, Shu Y, Wechsler LR, Jaff MR

Abstract
Background -The impact of carotid artery stent fractures on the incidence of adverse clinical events remains unclear. The objective of this study is to report the stent fracture rate and its association with in-stent restenosis and adverse outcomes in the Asymptomatic Carotid Trial (ACT)-1. Methods -ACT-1 is a prospective multicenter trial of standard surgical risk patients with severe asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis randomized to carotid artery stenting (CAS) or carotid endarterectomy (CEA) (Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, California, USA). The primary endpoint was a composite of death, stroke or myocardial infarction during the 30 days after the procedure or ipsilateral stroke during the 365 days after the procedure. After 771 patients were enrolled, successively randomized patients were required to undergo annual radiographic (X-ray) analysis for stent fracture. Images were independently adjudicated by a core laboratory. Results -Of 1021 patients treated with CAS during a mean follow-up of 3.1 ± 1.6 years, 939 had at least one X-ray during the follow-up period. Stent fracture was reported in 51 (5.4%) patients. With a maximum follow up period of 5 years, adverse clinical outcomes occurred in 39 patients with at least one X-ray during the follow-up. Of 826 (80.9%) subjects who underwent both DUS and X-ray, 822 (99.5%) were interpretable. There was no association between stent fracture and the primary endpoint (P=0.86) or with restenosis (P=0.53). Conclusions -In this large, independently-adjudicated, multicenter study, the stent fracture rate was low and not associated with major adverse clinical events or in-stent restenosis. Clinical Trial Registration -URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT00106938.

PMID: 28982691 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]