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Recent Discoveries


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Fine-mapping type 2 diabetes loci to single-variant resolution using high-density imputation and islet-specific epigenome maps.

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Fine-mapping type 2 diabetes loci to single-variant resolution using high-density imputation and islet-specific epigenome maps.

Nat Genet. 2018 Oct 08;:

Authors: Mahajan A, Taliun D, Thurner M, Robertson NR, Torres JM, Rayner NW, Payne AJ, Steinthorsdottir V, Scott RA, Grarup N, Cook JP, Schmidt EM, Wuttke M, Sarnowski C, Mägi R, Nano J, Gieger C, Trompet S, Lecoeur C, Preuss MH, Prins BP, Guo X, Bielak LF, Below JE, Bowden DW, Chambers JC, Kim YJ, Ng MCY, Petty LE, Sim X, Zhang W, Bennett AJ, Bork-Jensen J, Brummett CM, Canouil M, Ec Kardt KU, Fischer K, Kardia SLR, Kronenberg F, Läll K, Liu CT, Locke AE, Luan J, Ntalla I, Nylander V, Schönherr S, Schurmann C, Yengo L, Bottinger EP, Brandslund I, Christensen C, Dedoussis G, Florez JC, Ford I, Franco OH, Frayling TM, Giedraitis V, Hackinger S, Hattersley AT, Herder C, Ikram MA, Ingelsson M, Jørgensen ME, Jørgensen T, Kriebel J, Kuusisto J, Ligthart S, Lindgren CM, Linneberg A, Lyssenko V, Mamakou V, Meitinger T, Mohlke KL, Morris AD, Nadkarni G, Pankow JS, Peters A, Sattar N, Stančáková A, Strauch K, Taylor KD, Thorand B, Thorleifsson G, Thorsteinsdottir U, Tuomilehto J, Witte DR, Dupuis J, Peyser PA, Zeggini E, Loos RJF, Froguel P, Ingelsson E, Lind L, Groop L, Laakso M, Collins FS, Jukema JW, Palmer CNA, Grallert H, Metspalu A, Dehghan A, Köttgen A, Abecasis GR, Meigs JB, Rotter JI, Marchini J, Pedersen O, Hansen T, Langenberg C, Wareham NJ, Stefansson K, Gloyn AL, Morris AP, Boehnke M, McCarthy MI

Abstract
We expanded GWAS discovery for type 2 diabetes (T2D) by combining data from 898,130 European-descent individuals (9% cases), after imputation to high-density reference panels. With these data, we (i) extend the inventory of T2D-risk variants (243 loci, 135 newly implicated in T2D predisposition, comprising 403 distinct association signals); (ii) enrich discovery of lower-frequency risk alleles (80 index variants with minor allele frequency <5%, 14 with estimated allelic odds ratio >2); (iii) substantially improve fine-mapping of causal variants (at 51 signals, one variant accounted for >80% posterior probability of association (PPA)); (iv) extend fine-mapping through integration of tissue-specific epigenomic information (islet regulatory annotations extend the number of variants with PPA >80% to 73); (v) highlight validated therapeutic targets (18 genes with associations attributable to coding variants); and (vi) demonstrate enhanced potential for clinical translation (genome-wide chip heritability explains 18% of T2D risk; individuals in the extremes of a T2D polygenic risk score differ more than ninefold in prevalence).

PMID: 30297969 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Serological response to Helicobacter pylori proteins associate with risk of colorectal cancer among diverse populations in the United States.

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Serological response to Helicobacter pylori proteins associate with risk of colorectal cancer among diverse populations in the United States.

Gastroenterology. 2018 Oct 05;:

Authors: Butt J, Varga MG, Blot WJ, Teras L, Visvanathan K, Le Marchand L, Haiman C, Chen Y, Bao Y, Sesso HD, Wassertheil-Smoller S, Ho GYF, Tinker LE, Peek RM, Potter JD, Cover TL, Hendrix LH, Huang LC, Hyslop T, Um C, Grodstein F, Song M, Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A, Berndt S, Hildesheim A, Waterboer T, Pawlita M, Epplein M

Abstract
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Previous studies reported an association of the bacteria Helicobacter pylori, the primary cause of gastric cancer, and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, these findings have been inconsistent, appear to vary with population characteristics, and may be specific for virulence factor VacA. To more thoroughly evaluate the potential association of H pylori antibodies with CRC risk, we assembled a large consortium of cohorts representing diverse populations in the United States.
METHODS: We used H pylori multiplex serologic assays to analyze serum samples from 4063 incident cases of CRC, collected before diagnosis, and 4063 matched individuals without CRC (controls) from 10 prospective cohorts for antibody responses to 13 H pylori proteins, including virulence factors VacA and CagA. The association of sero-positivity to H pylori proteins, as well as protein-specific antibody level, with odds of CRC was determined by conditional logistic regression.
RESULTS: Overall 40% of controls and 41% of cases were H. pylori sero-positive (odds ratio [OR], 1.09; 95% CI, 0.99-1.20). H pylori VacA-specific sero-positivity was associated with an 11% increased odds of CRC (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.01-1.22), and this association was particularly strong among African Americans (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.08-1.95). Additionally, odds of CRC increased with level of VacA antibody in the overall cohort (P=.008) and specifically among African Americans (P=.007).
CONCLUSION: In an analysis of a large consortium of cohorts representing diverse populations, we found serologic responses to H pylori VacA to associate with increased risk of CRC risk-particularly for African Americans. Future studies should seek to understand whether this marker is related to virulent H pylori strains carried in these populations.

PMID: 30296434 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Effect of lorcaserin on prevention and remission of type 2 diabetes in overweight and obese patients (CAMELLIA-TIMI 61): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

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Effect of lorcaserin on prevention and remission of type 2 diabetes in overweight and obese patients (CAMELLIA-TIMI 61): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

Lancet. 2018 Oct 03;:

Authors: Bohula EA, Scirica BM, Inzucchi SE, McGuire DK, Keech AC, Smith SR, Kanevsky E, Murphy SA, Leiter LA, Dwyer JP, Corbalan R, Hamm C, Kaplan L, Nicolau JC, Ophuis TO, Ray KK, Ruda M, Spinar J, Patel T, Miao W, Perdomo C, Francis B, Dhadda S, Bonaca MP, Ruff CT, Sabatine MS, Wiviott SD, CAMELLIA-TIMI 61 Steering Committee Investigators

Abstract
BACKGROUND: There is a direct relationship between bodyweight and risk of diabetes. Lorcaserin, a selective serotonin 2C receptor agonist that suppresses appetite, has been shown to facilitate sustained weight loss in obese or overweight patients. We aimed to evaluate the long-term effects of lorcaserin on diabetes prevention and remission.
METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial done in eight countries, we recruited overweight or obese patients (body-mass index ≥27 kg/m2) with or at high risk for atherosclerotic vascular disease. Eligible patients were aged 40 years or older; patients at high risk for atherosclerotic vascular disease had to be aged 50 years or older with diabetes and at least one other risk factor. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either lorcaserin (10 mg twice daily) or matching placebo. Additionally, all patients had access to a standardised weight management programme based on lifestyle modification. The prespecified primary metabolic efficacy endpoint of time to incident diabetes was assessed in patients with prediabetes at baseline. The prespecified secondary outcomes for efficacy were incident diabetes in all patients without diabetes, achievement of normoglycaemia in patients with prediabetes, and change in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in patients with diabetes. Hypoglycaemia was a prespecified safety outcome. Analysis was by intention to treat, using Cox proportional hazard models for time-to-event analyses. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02019264.
FINDINGS: Between Feb 7, 2014, and Nov 20, 2015, 12 000 patients were randomly assigned to lorcaserin or placebo (6000 patients in each group) and followed up for a median of 3·3 years (IQR 3·0-3·5). At baseline, 6816 patients (56·8%) had diabetes, 3991 (33·3%) prediabetes, and 1193 (9·9%) normoglycaemia. At 1 year, patients treated with lorcaserin had a net weight loss beyond placebo of 2·6 kg (95% CI 2·3-2·9) for those with diabetes, 2·8 kg (2·5-3·2) for those with prediabetes, and 3·3 kg (2·6-4·0) for those with normoglycaemia (p<0·0001 for all analyses). Lorcaserin reduced the risk of incident diabetes by 19% in patients with prediabetes (172 [8·5%] of 2015 vs 204 [10·3%] of 1976; hazard ratio 0·81, 95% CI 0·66-0·99; p=0·038) and by 23% in patients without diabetes (174 [6·7%] of 2615 vs 215 [8·4%] of 2569; 0·77, 0·63-0·94; p=0·012). Lorcaserin resulted in a non-significant increase in the rate of achievement of normoglycaemia in patients with prediabetes (185 [9·2%] vs 151 [7·6%]; 1·20, 0·97-1·49; p=0·093). In patients with diabetes, lorcaserin resulted in a reduction of 0·33% (95% CI 0·29-0·38; p<0·0001) in HbA1c compared with placebo at 1 year from a mean baseline of 53 mmol/mol (7·0%). In patients with diabetes at baseline, severe hypoglycaemia with serious complications was rare, but more common with lorcaserin (12 [0·4%] vs four [0·1%] events; p=0·054).
INTERPRETATION: Lorcaserin decreases risk for incident diabetes, induces remission of hyperglycaemia, and reduces the risk of microvascular complications in obese and overweight patients, supporting the role of lorcaserin as an adjunct to lifestyle modification for chronic management of weight and metabolic health.
FUNDING: Eisai.

PMID: 30293771 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Inhibitory Anti-Peroxidasin Antibodies in Pulmonary-Renal Syndromes.

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Inhibitory Anti-Peroxidasin Antibodies in Pulmonary-Renal Syndromes.

J Am Soc Nephrol. 2018 Oct 02;:

Authors: McCall AS, Bhave G, Pedchenko V, Hess J, Free M, Little DJ, Baker TP, Pendergraft WF, Falk RJ, Olson SW, Hudson BG

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Goodpasture syndrome (GP) is a pulmonary-renal syndrome characterized by autoantibodies directed against the NC1 domains of collagen IV in the glomerular and alveolar basement membranes. Exposure of the cryptic epitope is thought to occur via disruption of sulfilimine crosslinks in the NC1 domain that are formed by peroxidasin-dependent production of hypobromous acid. Peroxidasin, a heme peroxidase, has significant structural overlap with myeloperoxidase (MPO), and MPO-ANCA is present both before and at GP diagnosis in some patients. We determined whether autoantibodies directed against peroxidasin are also detected in GP.
METHODS: We used ELISA and competitive binding assays to assess the presence and specificity of autoantibodies in serum from patients with GP and healthy controls. Peroxidasin activity was fluorometrically measured in the presence of partially purified IgG from patients or controls. Clinical disease severity was gauged by Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score.
RESULTS: We detected anti-peroxidasin autoantibodies in the serum of patients with GP before and at clinical presentation. Enriched anti-peroxidasin antibodies inhibited peroxidasin-mediated hypobromous acid production in vitro. The anti-peroxidasin antibodies recognized peroxidasin but not soluble MPO. However, these antibodies did crossreact with MPO coated on the polystyrene plates used for ELISAs. Finally, peroxidasin-specific antibodies were also found in serum from patients with anti-MPO vasculitis and were associated with significantly more active clinical disease.
CONCLUSIONS: Anti-peroxidasin antibodies, which would previously have been mischaracterized, are associated with pulmonary-renal syndromes, both before and during active disease, and may be involved in disease activity and pathogenesis in some patients.

PMID: 30279272 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Targeting nuclear receptor NR4A1-dependent adipocyte progenitor quiescence promotes metabolic adaptation to obesity.

Targeting nuclear receptor NR4A1-dependent adipocyte progenitor quiescence promotes metabolic adaptation to obesity.

J Clin Invest. 2018 Oct 02;:

Authors: Zhang Y, Federation AJ, Kim S, O'Keefe JP, Lun M, Xiang D, Brown JD, Steinhauser ML

Abstract
Adipocyte turnover in adulthood is low, suggesting that the cellular source of new adipocytes, the adipocyte progenitor (AP), resides in a state of relative quiescence. Yet the core transcriptional regulatory circuitry (CRC) responsible for establishing a quiescent state and the physiological significance of AP quiescence are incompletely understood. Here, we integrate transcriptomic data with maps of accessible chromatin in primary APs, implicating the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 in AP cell-state regulation. NR4A1 gain and loss of function in APs ex vivo decreased and enhanced adipogenesis, respectively. Adipose tissue of Nr4a1-/- mice demonstrated higher proliferative and adipogenic capacity compared with that of WT mice. Transplantation of Nr4a1-/- APs into the subcutaneous adipose tissue of WT obese recipients improved metrics of glucose homeostasis relative to administration of WT APs. Collectively, these data identify NR4A1 as a previously unrecognized constitutive regulator of AP quiescence and suggest that augmentation of adipose tissue plasticity may attenuate negative metabolic sequelae of obesity.

PMID: 30277475 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

First-Line Atezolizumab plus Chemotherapy in Extensive-Stage Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

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First-Line Atezolizumab plus Chemotherapy in Extensive-Stage Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

N Engl J Med. 2018 Sep 25;:

Authors: Horn L, Mansfield AS, Szczęsna A, Havel L, Krzakowski M, Hochmair MJ, Huemer F, Losonczy G, Johnson ML, Nishio M, Reck M, Mok T, Lam S, Shames DS, Liu J, Ding B, Lopez-Chavez A, Kabbinavar F, Lin W, Sandler A, Liu SV, IMpower133 Study Group

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Enhancing tumor-specific T-cell immunity by inhibiting programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1)-programmed death 1 (PD-1) signaling has shown promise in the treatment of extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer. Combining checkpoint inhibition with cytotoxic chemotherapy may have a synergistic effect and improve efficacy.
METHODS: We conducted this double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial to evaluate atezolizumab plus carboplatin and etoposide in patients with extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer who had not previously received treatment. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive carboplatin and etoposide with either atezolizumab or placebo for four 21-day cycles (induction phase), followed by a maintenance phase during which they received either atezolizumab or placebo (according to the previous random assignment) until they had unacceptable toxic effects, disease progression according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1, or no additional clinical benefit. The two primary end points were investigator-assessed progression-free survival and overall survival in the intention-to-treat population.
RESULTS: A total of 201 patients were randomly assigned to the atezolizumab group, and 202 patients to the placebo group. At a median follow-up of 13.9 months, the median overall survival was 12.3 months in the atezolizumab group and 10.3 months in the placebo group (hazard ratio for death, 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54 to 0.91; P=0.007). The median progression-free survival was 5.2 months and 4.3 months, respectively (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.96; P=0.02). The safety profile of atezolizumab plus carboplatin and etoposide was consistent with the previously reported safety profile of the individual agents, with no new findings observed.
CONCLUSIONS: The addition of atezolizumab to chemotherapy in the first-line treatment of extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer resulted in significantly longer overall survival and progression-free survival than chemotherapy alone. (Funded by F. Hoffmann-La Roche/Genentech; IMpower133 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02763579 .).

PMID: 30280641 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Mutational landscape of myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm - unclassifiable (MDS/MPN-U).

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Mutational landscape of myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm - unclassifiable (MDS/MPN-U).

Blood. 2018 Sep 21;:

Authors: Bose P, Nazha A, Komrokji RS, Patel KP, Pierce SA, Al-Ali N, Sochacki A, Shaver A, Ma W, Su X, Daver NG, DiNardo CD, Garcia-Manero G, Loghavi S, Bueso-Ramos C, Kantarjian HM, Sekeres MA, Savona MR, Maciejewski JP, Verstovsek S

PMID: 30242087 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Trans-maternal Helicobacter pylori exposure reduces allergic airway inflammation in offspring through regulatory T-cells.

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Trans-maternal Helicobacter pylori exposure reduces allergic airway inflammation in offspring through regulatory T-cells.

J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018 Sep 18;:

Authors: Kyburz A, Fallegger A, Zhang X, Altobelli A, Artola-Boran M, Borbet T, Urban S, Paul P, Münz C, Floess S, Huehn J, Cover TL, Blaser MJ, Taube C, Müller A

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The trans-maternal exposure to tobacco, microbes, nutrients and other environmental factors shapes the fetal immune system through epigenetic processes. The gastric microbe Helicobacter pylori represents an ancestral constituent of the human microbiota that causes gastric disorders on the one hand, and is inversely associated with allergies and chronic inflammatory conditions on the other.
OBJECTIVE: Here, we investigate the consequences of trans-maternal exposure to H. pylori, in utero and/or during lactation, for susceptibility to viral and bacterial infection, predisposition to allergic airway inflammation, and the development of immune cell populations in the lung and lymphoid organs.
METHODS: We use experimental models of house dust mite- or ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation and influenza A virus or Citrobacter infection along with metagenomics analyses, multi-color flow cytometry and bilsufite pyrosequencing to study the effects of H. pylori on allergy severity and immunological and microbiome correlates thereof.
RESULTS: Perinatal exposure to H. pylori extract, or its immunomodulator VacA, confers robust protective effects against allergic airway inflammation not only in the first, but also the second offspring generation, but does not increase susceptibility to viral or bacterial infection. Immune correlates of allergy protection include skewing of regulatory over effector T-cells, expansion of Treg subsets expressing CXCR3 or RORγt, and demethylation of the FOXP3 locus. The composition and diversity of the gastrointestinal microbiota is measurably affected by perinatal H. pylori exposure.
CONCLUSION: We conclude that exposure to H. pylori has consequences not only for the carrier, but also for subsequent generations that may be exploited for interventional purposes.

PMID: 30240703 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Genetic analysis of over 1 million people identifies 535 new loci associated with blood pressure traits.

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Genetic analysis of over 1 million people identifies 535 new loci associated with blood pressure traits.

Nat Genet. 2018 Sep 17;:

Authors: Evangelou E, Warren HR, Mosen-Ansorena D, Mifsud B, Pazoki R, Gao H, Ntritsos G, Dimou N, Cabrera CP, Karaman I, Ng FL, Evangelou M, Witkowska K, Tzanis E, Hellwege JN, Giri A, Velez Edwards DR, Sun YV, Cho K, Gaziano JM, Wilson PWF, Tsao PS, Kovesdy CP, Esko T, Mägi R, Milani L, Almgren P, Boutin T, Debette S, Ding J, Giulianini F, Holliday EG, Jackson AU, Li-Gao R, Lin WY, Luan J, Mangino M, Oldmeadow C, Prins BP, Qian Y, Sargurupremraj M, Shah N, Surendran P, Thériault S, Verweij N, Willems SM, Zhao JH, Amouyel P, Connell J, de Mutsert R, Doney ASF, Farrall M, Menni C, Morris AD, Noordam R, Paré G, Poulter NR, Shields DC, Stanton A, Thom S, Abecasis G, Amin N, Arking DE, Ayers KL, Barbieri CM, Batini C, Bis JC, Blake T, Bochud M, Boehnke M, Boerwinkle E, Boomsma DI, Bottinger EP, Braund PS, Brumat M, Campbell A, Campbell H, Chakravarti A, Chambers JC, Chauhan G, Ciullo M, Cocca M, Collins F, Cordell HJ, Davies G, Borst MH, Geus EJ, Deary IJ, Deelen J, Del Greco M F, Demirkale CY, Dörr M, Ehret GB, Elosua R, Enroth S, Erzurumluoglu AM, Ferreira T, Frånberg M, Franco OH, Gandin I, Gasparini P, Giedraitis V, Gieger C, Girotto G, Goel A, Gow AJ, Gudnason V, Guo X, Gyllensten U, Hamsten A, Harris TB, Harris SE, Hartman CA, Havulinna AS, Hicks AA, Hofer E, Hofman A, Hottenga JJ, Huffman JE, Hwang SJ, Ingelsson E, James A, Jansen R, Jarvelin MR, Joehanes R, Johansson Å, Johnson AD, Joshi PK, Jousilahti P, Jukema JW, Jula A, Kähönen M, Kathiresan S, Keavney BD, Khaw KT, Knekt P, Knight J, Kolcic I, Kooner JS, Koskinen S, Kristiansson K, Kutalik Z, Laan M, Larson M, Launer LJ, Lehne B, Lehtimäki T, Liewald DCM, Lin L, Lind L, Lindgren CM, Liu Y, Loos RJF, Lopez LM, Lu Y, Lyytikäinen LP, Mahajan A, Mamasoula C, Marrugat J, Marten J, Milaneschi Y, Morgan A, Morris AP, Morrison AC, Munson PJ, Nalls MA, Nandakumar P, Nelson CP, Niiranen T, Nolte IM, Nutile T, Oldehinkel AJ, Oostra BA, O'Reilly PF, Org E, Padmanabhan S, Palmas W, Palotie A, Pattie A, Penninx BWJH, Perola M, Peters A, Polasek O, Pramstaller PP, Nguyen QT, Raitakari OT, Ren M, Rettig R, Rice K, Ridker PM, Ried JS, Riese H, Ripatti S, Robino A, Rose LM, Rotter JI, Rudan I, Ruggiero D, Saba Y, Sala CF, Salomaa V, Samani NJ, Sarin AP, Schmidt R, Schmidt H, Shrine N, Siscovick D, Smith AV, Snieder H, Sõber S, Sorice R, Starr JM, Stott DJ, Strachan DP, Strawbridge RJ, Sundström J, Swertz MA, Taylor KD, Teumer A, Tobin MD, Tomaszewski M, Toniolo D, Traglia M, Trompet S, Tuomilehto J, Tzourio C, Uitterlinden AG, Vaez A, van der Most PJ, van Duijn CM, Vergnaud AC, Verwoert GC, Vitart V, Völker U, Vollenweider P, Vuckovic D, Watkins H, Wild SH, Willemsen G, Wilson JF, Wright AF, Yao J, Zemunik T, Zhang W, Attia JR, Butterworth AS, Chasman DI, Conen D, Cucca F, Danesh J, Hayward C, Howson JMM, Laakso M, Lakatta EG, Langenberg C, Melander O, Mook-Kanamori DO, Palmer CNA, Risch L, Scott RA, Scott RJ, Sever P, Spector TD, van der Harst P, Wareham NJ, Zeggini E, Levy D, Munroe PB, Newton-Cheh C, Brown MJ, Metspalu A, Hung AM, O'Donnell CJ, Edwards TL, Million Veteran Program, Psaty BM, Tzoulaki I, Barnes MR, Wain LV, Elliott P, Caulfield MJ

Abstract
High blood pressure is a highly heritable and modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We report the largest genetic association study of blood pressure traits (systolic, diastolic and pulse pressure) to date in over 1 million people of European ancestry. We identify 535 novel blood pressure loci that not only offer new biological insights into blood pressure regulation but also highlight shared genetic architecture between blood pressure and lifestyle exposures. Our findings identify new biological pathways for blood pressure regulation with potential for improved cardiovascular disease prevention in the future.

PMID: 30224653 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Genetic Variants Associated with Circulating Fibroblast Growth Factor 23.

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Genetic Variants Associated with Circulating Fibroblast Growth Factor 23.

J Am Soc Nephrol. 2018 Sep 14;:

Authors: Robinson-Cohen C, Bartz TM, Lai D, Ikizler TA, Peacock M, Imel EA, Michos ED, Foroud TM, Akesson K, Taylor KD, Malmgren L, Matsushita K, Nethander M, Eriksson J, Ohlsson C, Mellström D, Wolf M, Ljunggren O, McGuigan F, Rotter JI, Karlsson M, Econs MJ, Ix JH, Lutsey PL, Psaty BM, de Boer IH, Kestenbaum BR

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a bone-derived hormone that regulates phosphorus and vitamin D metabolism, contributes to the pathogenesis of mineral and bone disorders in CKD and is an emerging cardiovascular risk factor. Central elements of FGF23 regulation remain incompletely understood; genetic variation may help explain interindividual differences.
METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of circulating FGF23 concentrations among 16,624 participants of European ancestry from seven cohort studies, excluding participants with eGFR<30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 to focus on FGF23 under normal conditions. We evaluated the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with natural log-transformed FGF23 concentration, adjusted for age, sex, study site, and principal components of ancestry. A second model additionally adjusted for BMI and eGFR.
RESULTS: We discovered 154 SNPs from five independent regions associated with FGF23 concentration. The SNP with the strongest association, rs17216707 (P=3.0×10-24), lies upstream of CYP24A1, which encodes the primary catabolic enzyme for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Each additional copy of the T allele at this locus is associated with 5% higher FGF23 concentration. Another locus strongly associated with variations in FGF23 concentration is rs11741640, within RGS14 and upstream of SLC34A1 (a gene involved in renal phosphate transport). Additional adjustment for BMI and eGFR did not materially alter the magnitude of these associations. Another top locus (within ABO, the ABO blood group transferase gene) was no longer statistically significant at the genome-wide level.
CONCLUSIONS: Common genetic variants located near genes involved in vitamin D metabolism and renal phosphate transport are associated with differences in circulating FGF23 concentrations.

PMID: 30217807 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Phase 2 Trial of Ibudilast in Progressive Multiple Sclerosis.

Phase 2 Trial of Ibudilast in Progressive Multiple Sclerosis.

N Engl J Med. 2018 Aug 30;379(9):846-855

Authors: Fox RJ, Coffey CS, Conwit R, Cudkowicz ME, Gleason T, Goodman A, Klawiter EC, Matsuda K, McGovern M, Naismith RT, Ashokkumar A, Barnes J, Ecklund D, Klingner E, Koepp M, Long JD, Natarajan S, Thornell B, Yankey J, Bermel RA, Debbins JP, Huang X, Jagodnik P, Lowe MJ, Nakamura K, Narayanan S, Sakaie KE, Thoomukuntla B, Zhou X, Krieger S, Alvarez E, Apperson M, Bashir K, Cohen BA, Coyle PK, Delgado S, Dewitt LD, Flores A, Giesser BS, Goldman MD, Jubelt B, Lava N, Lynch SG, Moses H, Ontaneda D, Perumal JS, Racke M, Repovic P, Riley CS, Severson C, Shinnar S, Suski V, Weinstock-Guttman B, Yadav V, Zabeti A, NN102/SPRINT-MS Trial Investigators

Abstract
Background There are limited treatments for progressive multiple sclerosis. Ibudilast inhibits several cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, and toll-like receptor 4 and can cross the blood-brain barrier, with potential salutary effects in progressive multiple sclerosis. Methods We enrolled patients with primary or secondary progressive multiple sclerosis in a phase 2 randomized trial of oral ibudilast (≤100 mg daily) or placebo for 96 weeks. The primary efficacy end point was the rate of brain atrophy, as measured by the brain parenchymal fraction (brain size relative to the volume of the outer surface contour of the brain). Major secondary end points included the change in the pyramidal tracts on diffusion tensor imaging, the magnetization transfer ratio in normal-appearing brain tissue, the thickness of the retinal nerve-fiber layer, and cortical atrophy, all measures of tissue damage in multiple sclerosis. Results Of 255 patients who underwent randomization, 129 were assigned to ibudilast and 126 to placebo. A total of 53% of the patients in the ibudilast group and 52% of those in the placebo group had primary progressive disease; the others had secondary progressive disease. The rate of change in the brain parenchymal fraction was -0.0010 per year with ibudilast and -0.0019 per year with placebo (difference, 0.0009; 95% confidence interval, 0.00004 to 0.0017; P=0.04), which represents approximately 2.5 ml less brain-tissue loss with ibudilast over a period of 96 weeks. Adverse events with ibudilast included gastrointestinal symptoms, headache, and depression. Conclusions In a phase 2 trial involving patients with progressive multiple sclerosis, ibudilast was associated with slower progression of brain atrophy than placebo but was associated with higher rates of gastrointestinal side effects, headache, and depression. (Funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and others; NN102/SPRINT-MS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01982942 .).

PMID: 30157388 [PubMed - in process]

Model to Select On-Therapy vs Off-Therapy Tests for Patients with Refractory Esophageal or Extra-Esophageal Symptoms.

Model to Select On-Therapy vs Off-Therapy Tests for Patients with Refractory Esophageal or Extra-Esophageal Symptoms.

Gastroenterology. 2018 Aug 28;:

Authors: Patel DA, Sharda R, Choksi YA, Slaughter JC, Higginbotham T, Garrett CG, Francis DO, Ravi K, Hasak S, Katzka D, Gyawali CP, Vaezi MF

Abstract
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: It is not clear whether we should test for reflux in patients with refractory heartburn or extra-esophageal reflux (EER) symptoms, such as cough, hoarseness, or asthma. Guidelines recommend testing patients by pH monitoring when they are on or off acid-suppressive therapies based on pre-test probability of reflux, determined by expert consensus. However, it is not clear what constitutes a low or high pre-test probability of reflux in these patients. We aimed to develop a model that clinicians can use at bedside to estimate pre-test probability of abnormal reflux.
METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 471 adult patients with refractory heartburn (n=214) or suspected EER symptoms (n=257) who underwent endoscopy with wireless pH monitoring while they were off acid-suppressive treatment and assigned them to groups based on symptoms at presentation (discovery cohort). Using data from the discovery cohort, we performed proportional odds ordinal logistic regression to select factors (easy to obtain demographic criteria and clinical symptoms such as heartburn, regurgitation, asthma, cough, and hoarseness) associated with esophageal exposure to acid. We validated our findings in a cohort of 118 patients with the same features from two separate tertiary care centers (62% female; median age, 59 years; 62% with cough as presenting symptom).
RESULTS: Abnormal pH (more than 5.5% of time spent at pH <4) was found in 56% of patients with heartburn and 63% of patients with EER (P=.15). Within EER groups, abnormal pH was detected in a significantly higher proportion (80%) of patients with asthma than patients with cough (60%) or hoarseness (51%) (P<.01). Factors significantly associated with abnormal pH in patients with heartburn were presence of hiatal hernia and body mass index >25. In patients with EER, the risk of reflux was independently associated with the presence of concomitant heartburn (odds ratio [OR], 2.0; 95% CI, 1.3-3.1), body mass index > 25 (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.5-3.1), asthma (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2-3.5), and presence of hiatal hernia (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-3.1). When we used these factors to create a scoring system, we found that score of 2 or less excluded patients with moderate to severe reflux with a negative predictive value of 80% in the discovery cohort and a negative predictive value of 85% in the validation cohort.
CONCLUSION: We developed a clinical model to estimate pre-test probability of abnormal pH in patients who were failed by proton pump inhibitor therapy. This system can help guide clinicians at bedside in determining the most appropriate diagnostic test in this challenging group of patients.

PMID: 30170117 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Efficiently controlling for case-control imbalance and sample relatedness in large-scale genetic association studies.

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Efficiently controlling for case-control imbalance and sample relatedness in large-scale genetic association studies.

Nat Genet. 2018 Aug 13;:

Authors: Zhou W, Nielsen JB, Fritsche LG, Dey R, Gabrielsen ME, Wolford BN, LeFaive J, VandeHaar P, Gagliano SA, Gifford A, Bastarache LA, Wei WQ, Denny JC, Lin M, Hveem K, Kang HM, Abecasis GR, Willer CJ, Lee S

Abstract
In genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for thousands of phenotypes in large biobanks, most binary traits have substantially fewer cases than controls. Both of the widely used approaches, the linear mixed model and the recently proposed logistic mixed model, perform poorly; they produce large type I error rates when used to analyze unbalanced case-control phenotypes. Here we propose a scalable and accurate generalized mixed model association test that uses the saddlepoint approximation to calibrate the distribution of score test statistics. This method, SAIGE (Scalable and Accurate Implementation of GEneralized mixed model), provides accurate P values even when case-control ratios are extremely unbalanced. SAIGE uses state-of-art optimization strategies to reduce computational costs; hence, it is applicable to GWAS for thousands of phenotypes by large biobanks. Through the analysis of UK Biobank data of 408,961 samples from white British participants with European ancestry for > 1,400 binary phenotypes, we show that SAIGE can efficiently analyze large sample data, controlling for unbalanced case-control ratios and sample relatedness.

PMID: 30104761 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Effect of a Behavioral Intervention for Underserved Preschool-Age Children on Change in Body Mass Index: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

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Effect of a Behavioral Intervention for Underserved Preschool-Age Children on Change in Body Mass Index: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA. 2018 Aug 07;320(5):450-460

Authors: Barkin SL, Heerman WJ, Sommer EC, Martin NC, Buchowski MS, Schlundt D, Po'e EK, Burgess LE, Escarfuller J, Pratt C, Truesdale KP, Stevens J

Abstract
Importance: Prevention of obesity during childhood is critical for children in underserved populations, for whom obesity prevalence and risk of chronic disease are highest.
Objective: To test the effect of a multicomponent behavioral intervention on child body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) growth trajectories over 36 months among preschool-age children at risk for obesity.
Design, Setting, and Participants: A randomized clinical trial assigned 610 parent-child pairs from underserved communities in Nashville, Tennessee, to a 36-month intervention targeting health behaviors or a school-readiness control. Eligible children were between ages 3 and 5 years and at risk for obesity but not yet obese. Enrollment occurred from August 2012 to May 2014; 36-month follow-up occurred from October 2015 to June 2017.
Interventions: The intervention (n = 304 pairs) was a 36-month family-based, community-centered program, consisting of 12 weekly skills-building sessions, followed by monthly coaching telephone calls for 9 months, and a 24-month sustainability phase providing cues to action. The control (n = 306 pairs) consisted of 6 school-readiness sessions delivered over the 36-month study, conducted by the Nashville Public Library.
Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was child BMI trajectory over 36 months. Seven prespecified secondary outcomes included parent-reported child dietary intake and community center use. The Benjamini-Hochberg procedure corrected for multiple comparisons.
Results: Participants were predominantly Latino (91.4%). At baseline, the mean (SD) child age was 4.3 (0.9) years; 51.9% were female. Household income was below $25 000 for 56.7% of families. Retention was 90.2%. At 36 months, the mean (SD) child BMI was 17.8 (2.2) in the intervention group and 17.8 (2.1) in the control group. No significant difference existed in the primary outcome of BMI trajectory over 36 months (P = .39). The intervention group children had a lower mean caloric intake (1227 kcal/d) compared with control group children (1323 kcal/d) (adjusted difference, -99.4 kcal [95% CI, -160.7 to -38.0]; corrected P = .003). Intervention group parents used community centers with their children more than control group parents (56.8% in intervention; 44.4% in control) (risk ratio, 1.29 [95% CI, 1.08 to 1.53]; corrected P = .006).
Conclusions and Relevance: A 36-month multicomponent behavioral intervention did not change BMI trajectory among underserved preschool-age children in Nashville, Tennessee, compared with a control program. Whether there would be effectiveness for other types of behavioral interventions or implementation in other cities would require further research.
Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01316653.

PMID: 30088008 [PubMed - in process]

Clinical Genetic Testing for Familial Hypercholesterolemia: JACC Scientific Expert Panel.

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Clinical Genetic Testing for Familial Hypercholesterolemia: JACC Scientific Expert Panel.

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018 Aug 07;72(6):662-680

Authors: Sturm AC, Knowles JW, Gidding SS, Ahmad ZS, Ahmed CD, Ballantyne CM, Baum SJ, Bourbon M, Carrié A, Cuchel M, de Ferranti SD, Defesche JC, Freiberger T, Hershberger RE, Hovingh GK, Karayan L, Kastelein JJP, Kindt I, Lane SR, Leigh SE, Linton MF, Mata P, Neal WA, Nordestgaard BG, Santos RD, Harada-Shiba M, Sijbrands EJ, Stitziel NO, Yamashita S, Wilemon KA, Ledbetter DH, Rader DJ, Convened by the Familial Hypercholesterolemia Foundation

Abstract
Although awareness of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is increasing, this common, potentially fatal, treatable condition remains underdiagnosed. Despite FH being a genetic disorder, genetic testing is rarely used. The Familial Hypercholesterolemia Foundation convened an international expert panel to assess the utility of FH genetic testing. The rationale includes the following: 1) facilitation of definitive diagnosis; 2) pathogenic variants indicate higher cardiovascular risk, which indicates the potential need for more aggressive lipid lowering; 3) increase in initiation of and adherence to therapy; and 4) cascade testing of at-risk relatives. The Expert Consensus Panel recommends that FH genetic testing become the standard of care for patients with definite or probable FH, as well as for their at-risk relatives. Testing should include the genes encoding the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), apolipoprotein B (APOB), and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9); other genes may also need to be considered for analysis based on patient phenotype. Expected outcomes include greater diagnoses, more effective cascade testing, initiation of therapies at earlier ages, and more accurate risk stratification.

PMID: 30071997 [PubMed - in process]